Adderall: Uses, Side Effects and Abuse
Adderall: Uses, Side Effects and Abuse.
Adderall is a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and It’s also used to treat narcolepsy. Studies show that it improves attention and focus, and reduces impulsive behaviors. Between 75 percent and 80 percent of children with ADHD will see improved symptoms with the use of stimulants such as Adderall.
The drug increases the activity of the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine, according to the [ https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-stimulants National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Adderall is also effective for increasing daytime wakefulness in people with narcolepsy, although there is little related research available. The generic name for the drug in both the tablet and the capsule is amphetamine/dextroamphetamine salts.
The tablet is usually taken two to three times daily and the extended-release capsule is usually taken once daily, according to the NIH. Adderall comes in two forms:
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• Adderall oral tablet
• Adderall XR extended-release oral capsule
Dosage of Adderall
Adderall is available as a tablet and as an extended-release capsule (Adderall XR). It comes in varying doses, ranging from 5 mg to 30 mg., The Adderall dosage your doctor prescribes will depend on several factors. These include:
• prescribed dose will depend on the size of the patient and the severity of symptoms
• Your age
• The form of Adderall you take
• Other medical conditions you may have
Also check: Acetaminophen: Dosage, Side Effects & Overdose
Adderall contains a mixture of different forms of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. These forms include amphetamine aspartate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, and dextroamphetamine sulfate.
Adderall Side effects
For people diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Adderall helps to improve concentration and focus. As a central nervous system stimulant, it can also have the very same effects on people without ADHD. If you take Adderall for ADHD You may be more awake during the day, as well as become more focused and calmer., or for other purposes, it’s important to be aware of the side effects. People without ADHD who use the drug without medical supervision, the effects can be dangerous.
Dextroamphetamine and amphetamine may cause side effects, including:
• Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
• Uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
• Changes in sex drive or ability
• Dry mouth
• Stomach pain
• Loss of appetite
• Weight loss
• Fast or pounding heartbeat
• Shortness of breath
• Chest pain
• Excessive tiredness
• Slow or difficult speech
• Dizziness or faintness
• Weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
• Motor tics or verbal tics
• Believing things that are not true
• Feeling unusually suspicious of others
• Hallucinating (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist)
• Mania (frenzied or abnormally excited mood)
• Aggressive or hostile behavior
• Changes in vision or blurred vision
• Blistering or peeling skin
• Swelling of the eyes, face, tongue or throat
• Difficulty breathing or swallowing
• Hoarseness (abnormal voice changes)
If you experience any of these symptoms, you should contact your doctor immediately. Abusing or overusing Adderall and then stopping suddenly can cause symptoms of withdrawal, such as:
• feeling uneasy
• sleep problems, whether insomnia (trouble falling or staying asleep) or sleeping too much
• anxiety and irritability
• panic attacks
• fatigue or lack of energy
• phobias or panic attacks
• suicidal thoughts
There’s no treatment for an Adderall withdrawal. Instead, you may have to wait out the symptoms, which can last anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. Maintaining a regular routine can help with the withdrawal.
Who should not use Adderall?
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves drugs to treat certain conditions. Adderall has been approved to treat two conditions. However, Adderall is sometimes used for purposes that aren’t approved by the FDA.
This is to say Adderall is not for everybody. Patients should alert their doctors if they have a history of heart disease, heart rhythm disorder, coronary artery disease or heart attacks, according to the NIH. Doctors should also be alerted if the patient has a history of high blood pressure, mental illness, peripheral vascular disease or seizure disorders. Adults ages 65 and older should usually not take Adderall because it is not as safe as other medications for this age group, the NIH says.
Adderall and children
Adderall tablets are approved for treating ADHD in children ages 3 years and older. Adderall tablets are also approved for treating narcolepsy in children ages 6 years and older.
For children with ADHD, or hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that cause impairment and appear before the age of 7, Adderall can be considered part of a total treatment program. ADHD must be diagnosed through a series of tests that rule out other mental disorders. Other treatment measures will include psychological, educational and social aspects — drug treatments may not even be necessary.
There is evidence that Adderall may slow a child’s growth or weight gain, so doctors should monitor children’s growth carefully while they are on the medication, the NIH says.
Abuse Of Adderall A Risk For Addiction
People may sometimes misuse Adderall without their doctor’s recommendation or prescription. In some cases, this type of misuse of Adderall can lead to abuse of the drug. You should never use Adderall if it hasn’t been prescribed for you by your doctor.
Adderall is a Schedule ll controlled substance, which means there is a high risk for addiction when not medically prescribe by your doctor.
According to the Mayo Clinic, simply taking too much Adderall can cause dependence. People using Adderall should not take a larger dose or take it more often or for a longer time than prescribed by a doctor
“When taken as prescribed by a physician, there is little risk of addiction, but if taken recreationally for the ‘euphoric’ effect, the risk of abuse will be enhanced,” said Dr. Maria Pino, a toxicologist and course director for pharmacology at Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine in New York.
There is a rising trend of college students abusing Adderall and similar drugs, like Ritalin, to perform better on tests and papers. A study by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) found that full-time college students were twice as likely as non-students to have used Adderall non-medically.
This medication should not be sold or shared; doing so is not only dangerous, but also illegal. There is evidence that abuse of this drug may be related to an increase in emergency room visits involving prescription stimulants. A 2016 study published in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry found that nonmedical use of Adderall by adults had gone up by 67.1 percent and emergency department visits involving the medication had gone up by 155.9 percent, from 2006 to 2011.
Chronic abuse is marked by severe rash, insomnia, irritability and personality changes. The most severe symptom of abuse is psychosis, which is often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia, according to the FDA.
In addition, consuming alcohol with Adderall can be a dangerous combination for some, especially for those who drink too much. The safest bet is to avoid alcohol if you’re taking Adderall.
Drinking alcohol while taking Adderall can make you feel less drunk than you really are. This can lead you to drink too much. In addition to other effects, drinking too much may worsen symptoms of ADHD and can also increase your risk of heart-related side effects such as:
• increased blood pressure
• rapid heartbeat
• irregular heartbeat
Additional resources for Adderall finding: