Care Of Malaria, Transmission, Infection, Diagnosis, Prevention And Control
Malaria is a febrile illness characterize by fever and related symptoms. Or we can also say, Malaria is a protozoa disease. Malaria has been known to mankind for a very longtime, as mentions of it are found in Egyptian, Chinese and India, manuscripts. It clinical symptoms were fully described by Hippocrates 400 years before the Christian ear. It was initially thought that ‘miasma’ bad air or gas from swamps ‘’malaria’’ was responsible for the disease. But today I’ll details what you should know about the care Of malaria, transmission, infection, diagnosis, Prevention and contirol.
Malaria is caused by plasmodial species of which four are important in human disease – plasmodium, P. falciparum is responsible for most case fatality and it is the predominant species causing malaria in tropical Africa. Malari is a parasitic infection of red blood cells. In humans it is generally caused by five different species of Plasmodium, namely, P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. knowlesi, and P. ovale. According to an estimate about 40% of the world population lives in high malaria zone. According to W.H.O reports, Pakistan is a malaria endemic country and it is the second most prevalent disease in Pakistan. Major causative agents of malaria in Pakistan are P. vivax and P. falciparum with P. vivax being more common [ 2 ] . Malaria caused by P. falciparum is more severe and may often lead to cerebral malaria and death especially in children. Initially malaria due to P. vivax was generally considered as milder and manageable compared to P. falciparum infection, but recent global reports suggest that P. vivax malaria may cause complications leading to death. The global mortality rate for P. vivax is documented as 0.1–1.6% [ 3] . Hence, beside P. falciparum the P. vivax malaria should also be closely monitored to avoid complications and mortality. Thus, timely diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas is vital for early treatment and prevention of fatal outcomes in cases of P. falciparum, P. vivax, or mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria.
Malaria parasites are transmitted through the bite of female anopheles mosquitoes, the vector for human malaria, which is most active at night. Anopheles gambiae, which is widespread in Africa is the most effective vector and it is difficult to control. During the bite of female anopheles mosquito for a blood meal, it sucks the gametocytes (the sexual form of the parasites) along with the blood.
The blood meal is needed before the first batch of eggs can be laid. These gametocytes continue the sexual phase of the cyvle in the mosquito to form the sporozites. The sporozoites migrate to the salivary gland to the mosquito from where they are inoculated into the human blood stream during blood meal.
Malaria cycle of infection:
Malaria can, however, be transmitted through other ways: through inoculation of blood from infected person to a healthy person. By this means, the asexual bood forms continue to develop in their own periodicities in the peripheral blood producing attacks of fever in the recipient, without first undergoing pre-erythrocytic schizonts stage in the liver. It is important to note that malaria transmitted through inoculation of blood has a shorter incubation period than sporozoite-induced infection, and relapses do not occur. However, P. falciparum infections transmitted in this way can be fatal.
Several factors affect the transmission of malaria, and these include Breeding sites, parasites, climate, and population. Stagnant or slow flowing bodies of water such as small ponds, ditches, pits, swamps, reservoirs, uncovered tanks, object that collect water (e.g empty tins containers etc) encourage breeding of mosquitos.
Diagnosis of malaria involve the use of age long light microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood firms, which is the current standard for definitive diagnosis and it is widely practiced. However, its limitation include the time required for sample collection, staining and reading, and the need for highly trained and experience microscopists.
Prevention and control of malaria:
Early diagnosis, prompt and effective treatment (PET) Prevention of contact between vector and human by using insecticide treated materials and vector control. Treatment of malaria depends on many factors including disease severity, the species of malaria parasite causing the infection and the part of the world in which the infection was acquired. These determine the probability that the organism is resistant to certain antimalarial drugs. Additional factors such as age, weight, and pregnancy status may limit the available options for malaria treatmen.
Thanks to have read through. If after you discover any of this symptom in your body, Please contact a medical practitioner and please avoid self medication. Early detections is one of the way of having good healthy system. And if you find this educative you should add to this.